大学录取中对亚裔学生的歧视

最近几年来,许多研究发现了关于常青藤学校及其他入学竞争激烈的学校在入学申请流程中长期、持续和系统化地歧视亚裔申请学生的铁证。

• Daniel Golden (2007)— 由于哈佛大学和其他精英大学针对亚裔的歧视过于严重,Golden在他的专著里单独特例了一整章“新犹太人”来把亚裔所遭受的歧视和上个世纪二三十年代犹太人所受到的歧视进行比较。他在文中写道:“大多数精英学校的录取流程有三重标准,对亚裔要求最高,其次是白人,最低的是非裔和西裔。”他还提供了许多关于哈佛和其他精英大学如何用各种主观的种族偏见来歧视亚裔申请学生的定性的例子。

• Thomas Espenshade & Alexandra Radford (2009)— 亚裔的录取率在每一个SAT分数区间都是最低的。平均来看,亚裔要进入美国的名校,所需的SAT成绩必须要比白人学生高140分,比西裔学生高270 分,比黑人学生要高450分。

• Ron Unz (2012)— 1993年哈佛大学的亚裔学生比例达到了20%,然后立刻就下滑,并基本上一直保持在比这低3到5个百分点的水平。尽管亚裔的人口总数从1993年到现在已经不止翻了一倍。“亚裔在哈佛的相对入学率在暴跌,在过去的二十年里已经下降了超过一半。在耶鲁,康奈尔,和许多其他常青藤学校都有类似的下降。”

• Richard Sander (2014)— “在这三所最挑剔的常青藤学校里,相对其申请总数,没有任何其他一个种族和族群的录取率像亚裔一样低。”

哈佛大学以及其他常青藤学校的歧视性行为已经对亚裔社区的学生们造成了巨大的伤害:心理压力/心理健康问题,入学要求高带来的必须多学习的压力;对美国机构的信任缺失,自我认同危机,还有种族隔阂的强化。对每一位亚裔的大学申请人来说,这种行为滋生的感受是:作为亚裔,他或她比其他种族的同伴而又要少一些美国人的成分,而且没有,也永远不会得到全部的美国公民权益。

这种行为最丑陋的本质和历史上曾经对亚裔有过的歧视和排挤是一样的。其中包括1882年的排华法案和第二次世界大战期间对日裔的拘禁。令人吃惊的是,直至今天,美国的精英大学还在持续地和系统性地侵犯亚裔的公民权益,而且政府部门几乎没有去干预它们的违宪行为。当务之急是联邦政府应当强力干预,保护亚裔申请学生不再经受哈佛和其他大学的继续侵害。

详细证据和被违反的法律

Students for Fair Admissions, Inc.在它针对哈佛的联邦诉讼里提供了详细的证据来证明哈佛大学有以下行为:
(1) 有意识的歧视亚裔
(2) 种族再平衡,形成实际上的种族配额
(3) 使用种族因素远远超越了最高法院所允许的一个次要的“加分”因素

尤其是,哈佛大学的“全面评估”政策在录取流程中应用种族偏见和主观定型来不成比例的惩罚亚裔申请学生。哈佛大学的招生官常常不合理的认为亚裔的学习优势是劣势。除此之外,他们在课外活动因素的评估时不合理的给亚裔学生低分。

哈佛大学所违反的法律: 1964年的民权法案第六章,美国国家宪法第14号修正案。

图1: 亚裔在加州理工学院和常青藤大学入学人数的趋势和亚裔大学适龄人口数目的增长趋势比较(Unz)

college_enrallment_trends

图2:按种族和SAT得分区间分布的大学录取率(Espenshade, Thomas J. & Alexandra Radford)

rate_by_sat

图3: 按种族分布的高校录取所需的SAT得分 (Espenshade, Thomas J. & Alexandra Radford)

sat_by_race

图2, 图3显示了亚裔, 非裔,西裔,白人学生在入学标准上令人震惊的不公平。

参考资料:

1. Students for Fair Admission, Inc.’s Complaint Against Harvard University, filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts Boston Division, November 17, 2014;

2. Unz, Ron, “The Myth of American Meritocracy,” The Conservative, Page 14-51, December 2012.

3. Golden, Daniel, The Prices of Admission, How America’s Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges —and Who Gets Left Outside, released in 2007, ebook edition.

4. Espenshade, Thomas J.; Alexandra Radford, No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life, Princeton University Press, 2009.

5. Brief amici curiae of Asian American Legal Foundation, et al. filed., Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin
http://www.scotusblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/14-981-tsac-AALF-et-al..pdf

6. Richard Sander (Author), Stuart Taylor Jr., Mismatch: How Affirmative Action Hurts Students It’s Intended to Help, and Why Universities Won’t Admit It

7. Gallup Poll, In U.S., Most Reject Considering Race in College Admissions, 7/2013
http://www.gallup.com/poll/163655/reject-considering-race-college-admissions.aspx

8. Tony Lee, Millennials are the most diverse generation in American history, and they overwhelmingly oppose race-based affirmative action, breitbart, 5/2014
http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2014/05/18/mtv-survey-88-of-millennials-oppose-race-based-affirmative-action/

9. Poll: 57 percent of Millennials oppose racial preferences for college, hiring, 10/2012
http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Society/2012/1004/Poll-57-percent-of-Millennials-oppose-racial-preferences-for-college-hiring

Additional Sources:

The Economist: The model minority is losing patience, 10/2015
http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21669595-asian-americans-are-united-states-most-successful-minority-they-are-complaining-ever

YuKong Zhao, Stereotyping Asian-Americans: Harvard Calls It ‘Diversity’ But It’s More Like Racial Balancing, Forbes, 7/2015
http://www.forbes.com/sites/realspin/2015/07/09/stereotyping-asian-americans-what-harvard-calls-diversity-is-racial-balancing/

Steve Cohen, The Secret Quotas In College Admissions, Forbes, 7/2015
http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevecohen/2015/07/06/the-secret-quotas-in-college-admissions/

Sara Harberson, The truth about ‘holistic’ college admissions, Los Angeles Times, 6/2015
http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-harberson-asian-american-admission-rates-20150609-story.html

Bella English, To get into elite colleges, some advised to ‘appear less Asian’, Boston Globe, 6/2015
https://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/2015/06/01/college-counselors-advise-some-asian-students-appear-less-asian/Ew7g4JiQMiqYNQlIwqEIuO/story.html

KATE BACHELDER, Harvard’s Chinese Exclusion Act, Wall Street Journal, 6/2015
http://www.wsj.com/articles/harvards-chinese-exclusion-act-1433543969

DAVID FRENCH, What Ivy League Affirmative Action Really Looks Like — from the Inside, National Review, 5/2015
http://www.nationalreview.com/article/418530/what-ivy-league-affirmative-action-really-looks-inside-david-french

Michael Pearson, Mindy Kaling’s brother: I faked being black to get into medical school, CNN, 4/2015
http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/07/living/feat-mindy-kaling-brother-affirmative-action/

Joseph Pomianowski, Yale Law School Is Deleting Its Admissions Records, and There’s Nothing Students Can Do About It, New Republic, 3/2015
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/121297/yale-law-deletes-admissions-records-congress-must-fix-ferpa

Yunlei Yang, Asian Americans would lose under affirmative action, Los Angeles Times, 10/2014
http://www.latimes.com/opinion/opinion-la/la-ol-affirmative-action-sca5-asian-americans-20141001-story.html

Michael Wang, Asian-Americans and SCA-5: Here’s why many oppose it, San Jose Mercury News, 7/2014
http://www.mercurynews.com/opinion/ci_26159971/asian-americans-and-sca-5-heres-why-many

David A. Lehrer, Richard J. Riordan and Joe R. Hicks, Viewpoints: A step backward on higher education enrollment, The Sacramento Bee, 2/2014
http://blogs.sacbee.com/capitol-alert-insider-edition/2014/02/viewpoints-a-step-backward-on-higher-education-enrollment.html

Rohin Dhar, Do Elite Colleges Discriminate Against Asians?, priceonomics, 4/2013
http://priceonomics.com/post/48794283011/do-elite-colleges-discriminate-against-asians

S.B. Woo, Discrimination Is Obvious, The New York Times, 12/2012
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/19/fears-of-an-asian-quota-in-the-ivy-league/discrimination-is-obvious

RICHARD SANDER AND STUART TAYLOR JR, The Painful Truth About Affirmative Action, 10/2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/10/the-painful-truth-about-affirmative-action/263122/

Kevin Kiley, Think Outside ‘The Box’, Inside Higher Ed, 10/2012
https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/10/12/asian-american-students-perceive-bias-university-admissions-and-counselors-want

Jesse Washington, Some Asians’ college strategy: Don’t check ‘Asian’, The Associated Press, 12/2011
http://news.yahoo.com/asians-college-strategy-dont-check-asian-174442977.html

Wu, Yi-Chen (Jenny), University of Georgia, “Admission Considerations in Higher Education Among Asian-Americans” American Psychology Association,
http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/ethnicity-health/asian-american/article-admission.aspx.

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